Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue. Risk factors for developing breast cancer include being female, obesity , a lack of physical exercise, alcoholism , hormone replacement therapy during menopause , ionizing radiation , an early age at first menstruation , having children late in life or not at all, older age, having a prior history of breast cancer, and a family history of breast cancer. The balance of benefits versus harms of breast cancer screening is controversial. A Cochrane review found that it was unclear if mammographic screening does more harm than good, in that a large proportion of women who test positive turn out not to have the disease.
Other Non-cancerous Breast Conditions
Radial scar of the breast: Is it possible to avoid surgery?
Radical mastectomy is a surgical procedure involving the removal of breast, underlying chest muscle including pectoralis major and pectoralis minor , and lymph nodes of the axilla as a treatment for breast cancer. Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women today, and is primarily treated by surgery, particularly during the early twentieth century when the mastectomy was developed with success. Less invasive mastectomies are employed today in comparison to those in the past. Halsted and Meyer were the first to achieve successful results with the radical mastectomy, thus ushering in the modern era of surgical treatment for breast cancer. In , William Halsted published his work with radical mastectomy from the 50 cases operated at Johns Hopkins between and Radical mastectomy was based on the medical belief at the time that breast cancer spread locally at first, invading nearby tissue and then spreading to surrounding lymph ducts where the cells were "trapped". It was thought that hematic spread of tumor cells occurred at a much later stage.
Comparing Types of Mastectomy Surgeries
In this open operation, the surgeon makes the cut incision in the skin between the anus and scrotum the perineum , as shown in the picture above. It also might be used if you have other medical conditions that make retropubic surgery difficult for you. It can be just as curative as the retropubic approach if done correctly. After the surgery, while you are still under anesthesia, a catheter will be put in your penis to help drain your bladder. The catheter usually stays in place for 1 to 2 weeks while you are healing.
We have a more than year history of designing and conducting clinical trials that have changed the way breast cancer is treated, and, more recently, prevented. It was the NSABP's breast cancer studies that led to the establishment of lumpectomy plus radiation over radical mastectomy as the standard surgical treatment for breast cancer. We were also the first to demonstrate that adjuvant therapy could alter the natural history of breast cancer, increasing survival rates, and the first to demonstrate on a large scale the preventive effects of the drug tamoxifen in breast cancer. Since its beginning the NSABP has enrolled more than , women and men in clinical trials in breast and colorectal cancer.